Compound Placenames in English

by Juliana de Luna (Julia Smith)

© 2010 by Julia Smith. All rights reserved.
Version 1.1, updated 11 August 2010

Over the last decade, we have accumulated information about several patterns of compound placenames in English (that is, placenames created by taking an existing placename or toponymic element and adding to it an additional identifier, like the name of an owner). Such names were used both in the names of locations (and thus suitable for branch and household names) and in personal names. While most of our examples of personal names using these complex locatives are late period, there are some earlier examples, such as the mid 13th c. filius Wilelmi de Media Karleton' and filius Adae de Oswaldekyrke (both from Postles 2006, p. 92 and p. 97 respectively).

This article reviews the patterns of complex bynames we can identify and gives six to ten examples of each (fewer than that means that I was unable to identify at least six examples). The sources of citations are indicated in the text; full bibliographic citations for the sources are given below.

FIXME - links go here for each category and subcategory (kinda like the top of the Colleges page in that article). I'll add the links when the category headers/subheaders below are finalized

There are many examples of surnames appended to existing placenames in Mills and Ekwall. This pattern has been documented for some time. The most important precedent regarding this pattern is:

Sandy is a placename, dated as Sandeie to 1086 in Mills (Ekwall, s.n. Sandy). There is a pattern of English placenames created by appending surnames to existing placenames. Examples of this include Chilton Foliot 1221 (Mills, p. 78 Ekwall, s.n. Chilton), Northone Brun c. 1266 (Mills, p. 244 Ekwall, s.n. Norton), and Saunford Peverel 1275 (Mills, p. 284 Ekwall, s.n. Sampford). As Stream is a surname, dated to 1279 in the form ate Streme (Reaney & Wilson, Ekwall, s.n. Stream), a location Sandy located on or near an estate owned by the Stream family could come to be known as Sandy Stream. [Leah of Sandy Stream, 08/2003 LoAR, A-Caid]

Pattern One: Placename with family name or other owner reference following

Placename with family name following
There are many examples of family names appended to existing placenames in Mills and Ekwall. Examples include:
Acaster Malebisse1252Ekwall, s.n. Acaster Malbis & Selby
Akton Burnill1198Ekwall, s.n. Acton
Acton Picot1255Ekwall, s.n. Acton
Adbryghton Heose1327Ekwall, s.n. Albright Hussey
Allerton Mauleuerer1231Ekwall, s.n. Allerton Mauleverer
Aweltun Berner'1275Ekwall, s.n. Alton Pancras
Anna Savage1242Ekwall, s.n. Ann, Abbots & Little, Amport, Sarson
Aspeleye Gyse1363Ekwall, s.n. Aspley Guise
Aston Sanford1242Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Aston Aer1291Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Ascam Bryan1285Mills, s.n. Askham
A few examples of this pattern retain articles or prepositions from bynames
Acton le Runde1284Ekwall, s.n. Acton
Morton de Say1255Ekwall, s.n. Moreton
Esseby la Zusche1241Ekwall, s.n. Ashby
Anna de Portc. 1270Ekwall, s.n. Ann, Abbots & Little, Amport, Sarson
Toting de Bek1255Mills London, s.n. Toting Bec and Graveney
Stokes de Abernun1253Mills, s.n. Stoke
Some combine the placename and family name as one word
Bartonblonte1535Ekwall, s.n. Barton
Bairechartereay1288Ekwall, s.n. Beer
Byrfferers1239Ekwall, s.n. Bere Ferrers
Berehaket1362Mills, s.n. Beer Hacket
Totingraveney1316Mills London, s.n. Toting Bec & Graveney
Totingbek1316Mills London, s.n. Toting Bec & Graveney
One example uses the possessive form of the family name
Belcham Otes1256Ekwall, s.n. Belchamp Otten, St. Pauls, and Walton
The pattern is also found with Latin elements (with the attached name in the genitive form)
Actona Willelmi1167Ekwall, s.n. Acton
Essebia Fulconis de FoleuillaHenry IIEkwall, s.n. Ashbey
Esse Valteri1270Mills, s.n. Ashwater
Askham Ricardi1291Mills, s.n. Askham
The pattern of adding the owner's name after the placename also occurs with titles, like abbot and count
Esse Prior1263Ekwall, s.n. Ash
Essheby Canons13th. c.Mills, s.n. Ashby
The same pattern with Latin elements (with the attached title in the genitive form)
Adbrichton Monachorum1255Ekwall, s.n. Albright Hussey
Aulton prioris1199Ekwall, s.n. Alton Pancras
Anne Abbatisc. 1270Ekwall, s.n. Ann, Abbots & Little, Amport, Sarson
Esseby Canonicorum 1254Ekwall, s.n. Ashby
Eston abbatis Sancti Albani1237-40Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Aston Abbatis1262Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Barton comitis David1187Ekwall, s.n. Barton
Betton Abbatis1301Ekwall, s.n. Betton Abbots or Strange
Stoke Episcopeic. 1270Ekwall, s.n. Bishopstoke
Placename with church/saint's name following
Aulton Pancras1412Ekwall, s.n. Alton Pancras
Stokegabriel1309Mills, s.n. Stoke
Berevord St Martin1304Mills, s.n. Barford
Belchampe of St Paul1451Mills, s.n. Belchamp
Placename with church/saint's name following with Latin elements
Ameneye Sancte Crucis1287Ekwall, s.n. Ampney Crucis, St. Mary, St. Peter, Down A~
Amenel Sancti Petric. 1275Ekwall, s.n. Ampney Crucis, St. Mary, St. Peter, Down A~
Ammeney Beate Marie1291Ekwall, s.n. Ampney Crucis, St. Mary, St. Peter, Down A~
Esseby Sancti Ledodgarii1248Ekwall, s.n. Ashby St. Ledgers
Bernewell Omnium Sanctorum1254Ekwall, s.n. Barnwell St. Andrew & All Saints
Bernewell Sancti Andree1254Ekwall, s.n. Barnwell St. Andrew & All Saints
Bello Campo Sancti Pauli1248Ekwall, s.n. Belchamp Otten, St. Pauls, and Walton
Berewyk Sancti Jacobic. 1991Ekwall, s.n. Berwick
Berewyke S. Johannis1267Ekwall, s.n. Berwick
Berewyk Sancti Leonardi1291Ekwall, s.n. Berwick


Pattern Two: Placename with surname preceding

This pattern is somewhat less common than the first one. Sometimes family names or titles precede the placename; in this case, the family name or title generally takes a possessive form.
Family or given name in possessive form preceding placename
Ringgesashe1306Ekwall, s.n. Ashereigny
Scottes Acton1289Ekwall, s.n. Acton
Craucombesbere1325Ekwall, s.n. Beer
Brittesmoreton1204Ekwall, s.n. Morton
Aluredestretton1262Mills, s.n. Stretton
Bekesborne1280Mills, s.n. Bekesbourne
Rous lench1445Mills, s.n. Lench
Family or given name unmodified preceding placename
Abeleng1086Mills, s.n. Lench
Achelenz1086Mills, s.n. Lench
Cocking Hatley1576Mills, s.n. Hatley
Waterbelcham1297Ekwall, s.n. Belchamp Otten, St. Pauls, and Walton


Pattern Three: Placename or family name followed by generic toponymic

The pattern of creating a placename by combining a family name or existing placename with a generic toponym (a type of place, like a meadow or forest) has been well documented. There are two precedents regarding this; one from 7/03 gives evidence for family names in unmodified form:
No evidence was provided to support adding Sands to the end of an existing placename. However, there is a pattern in English, during the late Middle Ages and Renaissance, of placenames formed by appending a toponymic to a surname. Siren found some examples of this type of placename in A. D. Mills, Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names, including: Aldborough Hacche c. 1490 (s.n. Aldborough Hatch), Culling Deepe 1584 (s.n. Colindale), Coanie hatch 1593 (s.n. Colney Hatch), Fygmershe c. 1530 (s.n. Figge's Marsh), Gallion Reache 1588 (s.n. Gallions Reach), and Gallion Nesse 1588 (s.n. Gallions Reach).
And one from 5/04 gives evidence of the same pattern with the family name in the possessive form:
However, Mills does have some examples of "family name+topographic", including s.n. Towersey, Turrisey, "of the Tower family, Towers' eg" 1240; s.n. Tey, Great, Merkys Tey, "Tege of the de Merck family" 1475; s.n. Leigh Bessilles Lee, "Leigh of the Bessil family" 1539.
Title in possessive form preceding placename
Abbotesberton1329Ekwall, s.n. Barton
Abbots Bekenton1580Mills, s.n. Bickington
Earls Barton1290Ekwall, s.n. Barton
Freron Barnet1460Ekwall, s.n. Barnet Chipping, East, and High and New (Friars')
Freresbarnet1336Mills London, s.n. Barnet, Frieren
Bisshopeshampton1381Ekwall, s.n. Bishampton
Biscopesburne11th c.Ekwall, s.n. Bishopsbourne (was Burnes in the Domesday Book)
Bisshopescanyngges1314Mills, s.n. Cannings, All & Bishops
Bishops Churyton1370Mills, s.n. Cheriton
Monekenebukhurst1286Mills London, s.n. Monkham's Avenue
Monken Hadley1489Mills London, s.n. Hadley, Monken Hadley
Abbotes Langele1263Mills, s.n. Langley
Kyngeslangeley1463Mills, s.n. Langley
Word referring to church or abbey not in possessive form preceding placename
Stepell Asschton1341Ekwall, s.n. Ashton
Rode Assheton1475Ekwall, s.n. Ashton
Stepelestone1219Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Chirche Acton1347Mills London, s.n. Acton
Kyrkelongeleye1269Mills, s.n. Langley
Chirch Langeton1316Mills, s.n. Langton
Whitladyaston1481Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Abbei Stratford1389Mills London, s.n. Stratford
Chapel Allerton1360Mills, s.n. Allerton
Chirich Stretton1262Mills, s.n. Stretton
Temple Grafton1363Mills, s.n. Grafton
Family names + generic topographic feature
Aldborough Hacchec. 1490Mills London, s.n. Aldborough Hatch
Culling Deepe1584Mills London, s.n. Colindale
Coanie hatch1593Mills London, s.n. Colney Hatch
Fygmershec. 1530Mills London, s.n. Figge's Marsh
Gallion Reache1588Mills London, s.n. Gallions Reach
Gallion Nesse1588Mills London, s.n. Gallions Reach
Bokkynge Assh1411Mills, s.n. Ashbocking
Family name in possessive form + generic toponym
Ballardes Wood1544Mills London, s.n. Ballards Farm Road
Turrisey1240Mills, s.n. Towersey
Merkys Tey1475Mills, s.n. Tey, Great
Bessilles Lee1539Mills, s.n. Leigh
Squirrels Heath16th c. Mills London, s.n. Squirrels Heath
Placename followed by generic toponym
Aissewellethorpe (thorp belonging to Ashwell)1254Ekwall, s.n. Ashwellthorpe
Bichamdic (-dic has the modern meaning 'ditch')c. 1050Ekwall, s.n. Beechamwell
Bichham Welles (near some spring/'well')1212Ekwall, s.n. Beechamwell
Benfeldside1297Ekwall, s.n. Benfieldside
Lambythemersh1377Mills London, s.n. Lambeth
Lambeth Marshe1597Mills London, s.n. Lambeth
Lytel Ylleford heth1369Mills London, s.n. Little Heath
Peckham Rith1529Mills London, s.n. Peckham Rye
Barkingside1538Mills London, s.n. Barkingside
Barnes Elmsc. 1540Mills London, s.n. Barn Elms
Bernelmes1580Mills London, s.n. Barn Elms
Bradefordebriggec. 1387Mills London, s.n. Battle Bridge Road
Bekentre hathe13th c. Mills London, s.n. Becontree
Bentrye Hethe1594Mills London, s.n. Becontree
Stepheneth mershe1432Mills London, s.n. Isle of Dogs
Heighhamhill1501Mills London, s.n. Higham Hill
Hyewoodhill1568Mills London, s.n. Highwood Hill
Thorneton Hethe1511Mills London, s.n. Thornton Heath
Cambridge Heath1596Mills London, s.n. Cambridge Heath
Camprichthesheth1275Mills London, s.n. Cambridge Heath
Suffeild Hatch Grove1641Mills London, s.n. Suffield Hatch & Road
Stokeferie1248Mills, s.n. Stoke
Generic Toponym followed by placename
Mersse Baldinton1241Ekwall, s.n. Baldon, Toot and Marsh
Totbaldyndone (tote means 'hill')1312Ekwall, s.n. Baldon
Holebenham1220Ekwall, s.n. Benham Park, Hoe and Marsh B~, B~ Valence
Wodbastwyk1253Ekwall, s.n. Bastwick
Wodenderby1198Mills, s.n. Enderby


Pattern Four: Addition of adjectives to existing placenames

Many adjectives are added to existing placenames. These are organized by type and whether or not they're Latinized.
'Large' or 'Small'
Greate Aston1619Mills, s.n. Aston
Great Barre1322Ekwall, s.n. Barr, Great
Great Langeton1223Mills, s.n. Langton
Great Morton sub Lyme1289Ekwall, s.n.. Moreton
Greate Stanmore1392Mills London, s.n. Stanmore
Litelanstan1086Mills, s.n Anston, North & South
Little Aston1266Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Little Baggebergh1243Ekwall, s.n. Bagborough
Little Bampton1317Ekwall, s.n. Bampton
Little Barre1208Ekwall, s.n. Barr, Great
Little Stanmore1599Mills London, s.n. Stanmore
Little Stanmer1590Mills London, s.n. Whitechurch
Little Yelling1650Mills London, s.n. Ealing
Lytel Ylleford heth1369Mills London, s.n. Little Heath
Michill Ilford (Michill means 'great')c. 1462Mills London, s.n. Ilford
Much Stanmerc. 1580Mills London, s.n. Stanmore
'Large' and 'Small' Latinized
Benteleye Magna1254Ekwall, s.n. Bentley
Benteleye Parva1254Ekwall, s.n. Bentley
Berdefeud Magna1238Ekwall, s.n. Bardfield
Berdefeud Parva1238Ekwall, s.n. Barfield
Berningham Parva1254Ekwall, s.n. Barningham, Little
Magna Askeby1292Ekwall, s.n. Asby
Magna Beneton1252Ekwall, s.n. Benton, Little and Longbenton
Magna Berningham1254Ekwall, s.n. Barningham, Little
Maior Adinton1220Ekwall, s.n. Addington
Minor Adinton1220Ekwall, s.n. Addington
Parva Askeby1292Ekwall, s.n. Asby
Parva Babington1242Ekwall, s.n. Bavington
Parva Bentona1236Ekwall, s.n. Benton, Little and Longbenton
Cardinal direction plus placename
Estanesty1263Ekwall, s.n. Anstey, East and West
Estmorten1231Ekwall, s.n. Morton
Nort Eston1200Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Northanstan1297Ekwall, s.n. Anton, North and South
Northberwe1242Ekwall, s.n. Barrow
North Lamhuth1309Mills London, s.n. Lambuth
NortmortonDomesday Book (1086)Ekwall, s.n. Morton
Sud Berwe1242Ekwall, s.n. Barrow
Sutacre1242Ekwall, s.n. Acre, Castle, South & West
Suthanstan1297Ekwall, s.n. Anton, North and South
West Baggebergh1243Ekwall, s.n. Bagborough
Westacre1203Ekwall, s.n. Acre, Castle, South & West
Westanostige1234Ekwall, s.n. Anstey, East and West
Westmorton1231Ekwall, s.n. Morton
'Upper' and 'Lower' plus placename
Heghebuginton1423Mills, s.n. Bickington
High Bernet1575Mills London, s.n. Barnet, Chipping
Holway the lower1593Mills London, s.n. Holloway
Holway the upper1593Mills London, s.n. Holloway
le Nether Northefeld1459Mills London, s.n. Northfields
le Over Northefeld1459Mills London, s.n. Northfields
Nederavenac. 1150Ekwall, s.n. Avon
Netherarnecote1283Ekwall, s.n. Arncot, Upper & Lower
Netherbetynges1279Ekwall, Beeding, Lower & Upper
OppavreneDomesday Book (1086)Ekwall, s.n. Avon
Overarnecote1283Ekwall, s.n. Arncot, Upper & Lower
Upavenec. 1150Ekwall, s.n. Avon
Upper Bushhill1608Mills London, s.n. Bush Hill
'Old' or 'New' plus placename
Aldekanning1205Mills, s.n. Cannings, All & Bishops
New Braynford1521Mills London, s.n. Brentford
Old Braynford1476Mills London, s.n. Brentford
Vetus Appelbi1198Ekwall, s.n. Appleby, Magna & Parva
Other adjective plus placename
Caldessebic. 1150Mills, s.n. Ashby
Cold Aston1316Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Estona frigida1275Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Colde Hatton1223Mills, s.n. Hatton
Irnacton ('Iron')1287Ekwall, s.n Acton
Irenacton1248Mills, s.n. Acton
Staniacton ('Stone')1242Ekwall, s.n. Acton
Midelestun1220Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Wetenaston (Weten probably means 'wheaten')1248Ekwall, s.n. Aston
NigravreDomesday Book (1086)Ekwall, s.n. Avon
Hungre Bentley1431Ekwall, s.n. Bentley
Fennibenetlegh1272Ekwall, s.n. Bentley
Gudelenemorton1226Ekwall, s.n. Moreton
Stokene Neuton (stoken means 'tree stumps')1294Mills London, s.n. Stoke Newington
Stokenewington (stoken means 'tree stumps')1535Mills London, s.n. Stoke Newington
Blakaueton1286Ekwall, s.n. Blackawton
Hangyndestok ('hanging')1263Mills, s.n. Stoke
Longe Asshton1467Mills, s.n. Ashton
Haulte Huknall (Haulte means 'high')1535Mills, s.n. Hucklow
Heye Hatton1327Mills, s.n. Hatton
Fulebachopec. 1200Mills, s.n. Bacup
Placename plus other adjective
Bykenore Anglican'1291Ekwall, s.n. Bicknor
Bykenore Walens'1291Ekwall, s.n. Bicknor
Neweton Stoken (stoken means 'tree stumps')1274Mills London, s.n. Stoke Newington
Leyton Stone1426Mills London, s.n, Leytonstone


Pattern Five: Other complex placenames

Other element plus placename
Asse Wykin ('Wicken' is an independent placename)1302Ekwall, s.n. Ashwicken
Askiwiken ('Wicken' is an independent placename)1275Mills, s.n Ashwicken
Sculacle12th c.Ekwall, s.n. Aycliffe, Great, School
Castelacr'1235Ekwall, s.n. Acre, Castle, South & West
Castellum Bern'c. 1150Ekwall, s.n. Barnard Castle
Castel Morton 1346Ekwall, s.n. Morton
Castel Assheby1361Ekwall, s.n. Ashby
Chepyng Barnet1343Ekwall, s.n. Barnet Chipping, East, High, and New
Two placenames
Allerton Gledhowe1285Ekwall, s.n. Allerton
Asshfeld Badewelle1320Ekwall, s.n. Badwell Ash
Badewelle Asfelde13th c.Ekwall, s.n. Badwell Ash
Barton Hartshornc. 1450Ekwall, s.n. Barton
Batheston1258Ekwall, s.n. Batheaston
Bellebrochton1290Ekwall, s.n. Belbroughton
Belne Brochton1298Ekwall, s.n. Belbroughton
Berdefeld Salynge1314Ekwall, s.n. Bardfield
Berton Bristoll1220Ekwall, s.n. Barton
Ivyngho Aston1490Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Morton et Merehull 1316Ekwall, s.n. Moreton
Morton Merehul1336Ekwall, s.n. Moreton
Placename with prepositional phrase
Allerton by ye water1430Mills, s.n. Allerton
Allerton Bywater1257Ekwall, s.n. Allerton
Appelton in Allerdale1229Ekwall, s.n. Apppleton
Ashton under Lyme1305Ekwall, s.n. Ashton
Assheton Underhill1544Mills, s.n. Ashton
Asshton under Lyme1305Mills, s.n. Ashton
Aston by Mondrem1350Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Aston in the Walles1483Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Aston juxta Burningham1294Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Aston sup. Carent1327Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Aston super Trentam1330Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Aynderby in le Myre1499Ekwall, s.n. Ainderby Mires
Aynderby wyth Stepil1316Ekwall, s.n. Ainderby Mires
Barewe on Sore1311Ekwall, s.n. Barrow
Barneby in the More1371Mills, s.n. Barmby
Barneby super Don1285Ekwall, s.n. Barneby Moor
Barneby super Don1285Mills, s.n. Barnby
Barton in le Benes1388Ekwall, s.n. Barton
Barton in le Benes1388Mills, s.n. Barton
Barton sub NedwodeHenry IIIEkwall, s.n. Barton
Barton super Humbre1281Ekwall, s.n. Barton
Barton-in-the-Clay1535Mills, s.n. Barton
Berewicum super Twedam1229Ekwall, s.n. Berwick
Bertune apud BristovDomesday Book (1086)Ekwall, s.n. Barton
Byestewalle juxta Warham1310Ekwall, s.n. Bestwall
Eston apud Ivyngho128Ekwall, s.n. Aston
Great Morton sub Lyme1289Ekwall, s.n. Moreton
Harowe atte Hille1398Mills London, s.n. Harrow
Harowe on the Hill1426Mills London, s.n. Harrow
Hauering atte Bower1272Mills London, s.n. Havering-atte-Bower
Kingestowne upon Thames1589Mills London, s.n. Kingstown Thames
Le Holeweye in Iseldone1307Mills London, s.n. Holloway
Les Bruses in Totenham1375Mills London, s.n. Bruce Castle & Grove
Leye under Brochurst1285Mills, s.n. Lee
Leyton atte Stone1370Mills London, s.n. Leytonstone
Mellefeld iuxta Mellelane1443Mills London, s.n. Millfields, North and South
Morton in Hennemersh1253Ekwall, s.n. Moreton
Morton juxta Logge1291Ekwall, s.n. Moreton
Stoke in Clymeslond1302Mills, s.n. Stoke
Stokes under Hamden1248Mills, s.n. Stoke
Strateford atte Bowe1279Mills London, s.n. Bow
Stratford at the Bowe1494Mills London, s.n. Bow
Strattone by Sugwas1334Mills, s.n. Stretton
Thorpe super Usam1194Ekwall, s.n. Bishopsthorpe
Wodecote juxta Croydun1307Mills London, s.n. Woodcote

Documentation for some specific elements:

Haven (as addition to existing placename)

In Speed's The Counties of Britain (most maps drawn 1610), there are a group of placenames that add -haven to an existing placename. They include:
Ballatimore Haven, Munsterc. 1610Speed, pp. 282-283
Corckhauen, Munsterc. 1610Speed, pp. 282-283
Cuckmere haven, Sussexc. 1610Speed, p. 175
Deere haven, Munsterc. 1610Speed, pp. 282-283
Dingle haven, Munsterc. 1610Speed, pp. 282-283
Dungarvan haven, Munsterc. 1610Speed, pp. 282-283
Feriter haven, Munsterc. 1610Speed, pp. 282-283
Gascon haven, Munsterc. 1610Speed, pp. 282-283
Haslings haven, Sussexc. 1610Speed, p. 175
Pemsey Haven, Sussexc. 1610Speed, p. 175
Waterford haven, Munsterc. 1610Speed, pp. 282-283
Youghall haven, Munsterc. 1610Speed, pp. 282-283
A few appear to add -haven to another element, without an existing placename. These are not standard prothemes; instead, they seem to be the kinds of elements added to existing placenames.
Newhauen, Kentc. 1610Speed, p. 107
North Hauen poynt, Dorsetc. 1610Speed, p. 71
Rye Hauen, Kentc. 1610Speed, p. 107
South Hauen poynt, Dorsetc. 1610Speed, p. 71
Cuckolds haven1588Mills London, s.n. Cuckold's Point
The precedent from 12/01 adds another citation. At the time, it rules the element SCA-compatible, but the evidence here is clear for adding Haven to an existing placename. The evidence for constructing a bithemic placename using haven is weak.
The element haven means 'harbor'. It was normally appended to an existing location name. For example, Speed, The Counties of Britain (p. 90, map of the Isle of Wight, most maps in this source drawn c. 1610) lists the location Yarmouth and lists Yarmouth Haven for the name of the harbor/bay nearby, Yarmouth cast (an abbreviation for castle) and Yarmouth Rode for locations near Yarmouth. (12/01, Rose Morgan).

'Crest' and 'Keep'

Crest and Keep are not found as placename elements. However, they are found both as generic toponyms and as family names. Therefore, they can be used in contexts where such elements can be used (appended to existing placnames or after the name of an owning family). Citations for them are given in precedent:
[crest and keep] The element crest falls into the same category as keep. In both cases, we do not have evidence of that element used in a formal place name in period, though we have evidence of each as a geographical element. Bardsley (p. 216 Ekwall, s.n. Crest) dates both Rogerus del Crest and Johannes del Crest to 1379. Bardsley (p. 441 Ekwall, s.n. Keep) dates William atte Kep to 18 Edw. I, Roger Kep to I Edw. III, and Richard atte Kippe to I Edw. III. Reaney & Wilson (p. 261 Ekwall, s.n. Keep) dates Thomas ate Kepe to 1327 and Roger de Kepe to 1332. (11/01)
Family name followed by 'Green'
Wendengrene1386Mills London, s.n. Walham Green
Wanam Grene1546Mills London, s.n. Walham Green
Personesgrene1391Mills London, s.n. Parsons Green
Boundsgrene1608Mills London, s.n. Bonds Green
Placename followed by 'Green'
Assheley grene1468Mills, s.n. Ashley
Blethenalegreene1443Mills London, s.n. Bethnal Green
Camerwell grene1572Mills London, s.n. Camberwell
Estactongreene1474Mills London, s.n. Acton
Hadleygrene1514Mills London, s.n. Ardleigh Green
Lising Green1610Mills London, s.n. Lisson Green
Lylleston Grene1547Mills London, s.n. Lisson Green
Newyngtongrene1480Mills London, s.n. Newington Green
Elements followed by 'Grove'
Arnoldes Grove1551Mills London, s.n. Arnos Grove
Clayes More Grove1610Mills London, s.n. Claysmore
Foxgrove1355Mills London, s.n. Foxgrove
le Rokegrofe1431Mills London, s.n. Roke, Little
Pypis Grove16th c.Mills London, s.n. Phipps Bridge
Suffeild Hatch Grove1641Mills London, s.n. Suffield Hatch & Road


Ekwall Ekwall, Eilert. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names. Oxford University Press.
Mills Mills, A. D.. A Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford University Press.
Mills London Mills, A. D.. A Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford University Press.
Speed Speed. The Counties of Britain.

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