Medieval Secular Order Names: Fraternal Knightly Organizations

by Juliana de Luna (Julia Smith), Siren Herald

© 2008-2009 by Julia Smith. All rights reserved.
Version 1.1, updated 18 February 2009


 
Bear (Germany) - Not much is known about this tournament society, which is documented in rolls of arms and tournament books, starting in 1484.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft im Beren'Society of [in] the Bear'c. 1500GermanRanft
Geselschaft im Bern'Society of [in] the Bear'c. 1500GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Blue Cottage (Germany) - This organization was only mentioned twice, in 1367 and 1369. It involved elites from Köln and Aachen. Its modern form is Blaue Hüte, according to Kruse et al. Boulton provides the translation "lodge" for the second word.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselsscaf van den blauwen Hueden'Society of the blue cottages'1367GermanRanft
Geselleschaft mit den blaenhuden'Society with the blue cottages'1367GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Club (Germany) - This order was founded in 1391 as a political and military alliance. It was known by various names (sometimes in the same document), all of which mean 'club' or 'cudgel' or perhaps 'mace'.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Bengeler [oder] Kloppele'club[er] [or] cudgel'1391-1398GermanKruse et al.
geselschafft von den Bengeln'Society of the clubs'1392GermanKruse et al.
mit dem Kolben'with the cudgel'c. 1392GermanKruse et al.
Kloppele'cudgel'c. 1400GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Crown [1] (Germany) - This fraternal organization involved the lords and knights of Augsberg; it was founded in 1372.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschaft gemeinclich von der Crone'mutual society of the Crown'1372GermanRanft
[Gesellschaft] mit der Krone'[Society] with the Crown'1372GermanRanft
Gesellschaft von der Cronen'Society of the Crown'1372GermanRanft
gesellschaft und nanten sich die Kroner'society [and those] who called themselves the Crown[ers]'1468 [describing 1372]GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Crown [2] (Germany) - This tournament society is documented from 1479 to after 1530. They took part in tournaments in Würzburg, Ansbach, Bamberg, Heidelberg, Stuttgart, and Regensburg.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
die loblich geselschafft der Kron'the honorable society of the Crown'1483GermanKruse et al.
Geselschaft der Cron'Society [of] the Crown'c. 1500GermanRanft
Cron Geselschaft'Crown Society'c. 1500GermanKruse et al.
Kronn Geselschaft'Crown Society'1510GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Crown of Roses (Germany) - This company was organized by Adolf, count of Cleves together with other local nobles. It was founded in 1393 to last for ten years, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschop van den rosenkrensen'Society of the rose wreaths'14th c.GermanBoulton
Geselschap van den Rosenkrentzen'Society of the rose wreaths'c. 1400GermanKruse et al.
societas Rosarii'society of the garland of roses'c. 1400Latin (German)Kruse et al.
 

 
Crowned Ibex (Germany) - This tournament society was established with the participation of Duke Gerhard of Jülich and Berg in 1436; it would be refounded after 1475 by his successor Duke Wilhelm, according to Boulton. Kruse et al. date the refounding to 1480.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselle[schaft] von den gekrenten Steynbocken'Society of the crowned ibexes'1436GermanBoulton
Gesell[schaft] von den gekrönten Steinbocken'Society of the crowned Ibexes'c. 1436GermanBoulton
Bockgesellschaft'Ibex-society'1480GermanKruse et al.
die gesellenn vonn den grekrönten Steinbocken'the companions of the crowned Ibexes'1480GermanKruse et al.
der geselschaft knecht von Steinbock'knight of the society of the Ibex'1482GermanKruse et al.
Geselschaft des Steinbocks'Society of the Ibex'15th c.GermanKruse et al.
löbliche Gesellschafft im Steinbock'honorable Society of [in] the Ibex'15th c.GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Dog (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1431 in the area around Hohenstein.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
mit dem Rüden'with the Dog'1431GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Dog-collar (Germany) - This society was founded in 1413, involving six princes of lower Silesia, and admitting lesser folk as well. Its last notice is in 1425, though it may have survived for another decade, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselleschaft des Rodinbands'society of the dog-collar'1414GermanBoulton
Geselleschaffte mit dem Rüdenpand'society with the dog-collar'15th c.GermanBoulton
 

 
Donkey (Germany) - This fraternal knightly organization was founded in 1387; it lasted until nearly 1500, according to Wikipedia Wikipedia. It had widely spread membership, and was eventually split into "upper" (around Heidelberg) and "lower" (around Frankfurt) groups.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ober und nyder Esel'Upper and lower Donkeys'c. 1400GermanRanft
Gesellschaft genannt die Eselgesellschaft'Society called the Donkey-society'1478GermanRanft
Den ober Esel die Gesellen Rocke zu verkunden'Those who wear the Tabards of the upper Donkey Companions'15th c.GermanRanft
Der Geselschafft Knecht von dem Esell'Knight of the Society of the Donkey'15th c.GermanRanft
 

 
Dragon (France) - This "order" was a fraternal group who vowed to carry out certain martial tasks. It was created by a French noble, probably Jean de Grailly, Count of Foix, around 1415, and was intended to last for one year, according to Boulton.
 

 
Elephant (Germany) - This fraternal organization was a political and military alliance in the Tirol.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
des Hellefants Namen'of the name of the Elephant'c. 1406GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Falcon [1] (Germany) - This fraternal knightly order was founded in 1380, and continued in use through the 1380s in Westfalia, according to Kruse et al. Beyond that, we know essentially nothing about this order.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Eine Geselschaft von Rittern und Knechten, di hißen di Falkenere'A Society of Knights, called the Falcon[ers]'1380GermanRanft
unde geselschafft ... die hissen die Falckenere'a society ... called the Falcon[ers]'1380-1398GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Falcon [2] (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1407, in Schwaben, with the blessing of the duke of Austria.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschaft der Valkchen, genant Snaytholcer'Society of the Falcon, called Pathcutters'1407GermanRanft
der Valken genant Snaytholczer'the Falcon called Pathcutters'c. 1407GermanRanft
Falkengesellschaft'Falcon-society'1432GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Fish and Falcon (Germany) - This fraternal tournament organization was formed in 1479, from a previously existing Society of the Fish, in the Bodensee region (for which we have no period forms of the name), and Society of the Falcon, in Oberschwaben.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Fisch und Falckhen'Fish and Falcon'1484GermanRanft
Falkhen und Visch'Falcon and Fish'1484GermanRanft
[Gesellschaft] im Valken und Vysch'[Society] of the [in] Falcon and Fish'1486GermanRanft
visch und valk'fish and falcon'c. 1500GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Flail (Germany) - This society was founded by Wilhelm, Marquis of Messen, shortly after 1407, to unify local nobles, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselleschaft flegiln'Society of [the] flails'1407GermanRanft
Societas Tritarum'Society of the Flails'15th c. [1583]Latin (German)Boulton
Id est Flegellarum'That is of the Flails'15th c. [1583]Latin (German)Boulton
 

 
Fool (Germany) - This association was founded in Cleve in 1381 for 12 years according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselscap von den Gecken'Society of the Fools'14th c.GermanBoulton
 

 
Fox (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1392 by Konrad, Archbishop of Mainz, and count Balthasar von Thüringen.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellen von den Fühssen'Companions of the Foxes'1392GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Gold(en) Apple (France) - This fraternal organization of knights was organized in 1394 in Auvergne, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ourdre de la Pomme d'Or'Order of the Gold(en) Apple'1394FrenchBoulton
 

 
Gold(en) Tree (France) - This "order" was a fraternal group who vowed to carry out certain martial tasks, associated with the famous pas d'armes of that name in Brittany, held in 1468. Domínguez Casas asserts that it functioned as a fraternal company or order. In French, it's Arbre d'Or, but that form is not dated as an order name; it is found in that spelling as a heraldic title, which de la Marche includes in his memoirs, which were completed c. 1492.
 

 
Green (Young/Fresh) Love (Germany) - This appears to be a fraternal knightly organization, best known from its altar in the church at Friedberg. It seems to have been founded in 1365, and activity would continue until shortly after 1400.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Grunen Minnern'[to the] Green Love[rs]'1367GermanKruse et al.
Grunen Minne'Green Love'1367GermanRanft
Grune Mynne'Green Love'c. 1367GermanRanft
der Mene'the love'1370GermanKruse et al.
Grunen Mynner'[to the] Green Love[r]'1370GermanKruse et al.
socii ac societas de veridi amore'brothers or society of true love'1371Latin (German)Kruse et al.
 

 
Green Shield with the White Lady (France) - This "order" was a fraternal group who vowed to carry out certain martial tasks; created in 1399 by Jean le Maingre 'de Boucicaut,' Marshall of France, it was intended to last for five years, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Emprise de l'Escu vert a la Dame Blanche'Enterprise of the Green Shield with the White Lady'c. 1400FrenchBoulton
 

 
Greyhound [literally Wind[hound]] (Germany) - This tournament society was formed of knights and prominent nobles from the area of Heidleberg, Stuttgart, and Worms; they would continue to function until nearly 1500. Windhund is the German word for Greyhound. However, in all the citations of this order found so far, -hund is not included.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschafft im Wind'Society of [in] the Wind[hound]'1450 [1566]GermanKruse et al.
Geselschafft des Winds'Society of the Wind[hound]'1459GermanRanft
die löblich geselschafft des winds'the honorable society of the Wind[hound]'1483GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Griffin [1] (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1379 in the area around Wertheim, under the sponsorship of the count.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellen mit dem Gryfe'Companions with the Griffin'1379GermanRanft
Gesellen myt dem Gryffen'Companions with the Griffin'1379GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Griffin [2] (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded around 1428 in the same area as the Society of the Unicorn.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Societas alia oritur illorum qui deferent grifonem'another society arose of those who bore the griffin'1428Latin (German)Kruse et al.
 

 
Holy Spirit (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1463; early members included the Count of Zweibrücken and the overlord of Lichtenberg. Holy Ghost is an the older term for the Holy Spirit.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Heyligen Geist Geselschafft'Holy Ghost Society'c. 1463GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Horn (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1379 as a political and military alliance.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft vom Horne'Society of the Horn'1379GermanRanft
gesellen vome Horne'companions of the Horn'1379GermanKruse et al.
Geselleschafft mit den Hornern'Society with the Horns'1382GermanKruse et al.
Geselleschaft mit den Hörnern'Society with the Horns'1382GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Horse-comb (Germany) - This company was organized around the court of Adolf I of Cleves in 1392-3, according to Boulton. It continues to be mentioned into the sixteenth century. In English, this item is often referred to as a curry-comb.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gheselschap van den Roskamen'Society of the horse-comb'c. 1400GermanBoulton
societas equestris im Roskampp'knightly society of [in] the Horse-comb'c. 1400Latin (German)Kruse et al.
 

 
Hose (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1386; it's mentioned several times before 1400. It's associated with the Margrave Wilhelm von Meissen. Hose here refers to the garment.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Unser Gesellen von der Hasen'Our Companions of the Hose (plural)'1379GermanRanft
Geselleschaft mit der Hosin'Society with the Hose (plural)'1386GermanRanft
Gesellen von der Hasen'our companions of the hose (plural)'1397/8GermanKruse et al.
societas cum caliga'society with the hose'1398Latin (German)Kruse et al.
 

 
Hound (France) - This fraternal association was founded in 1416 in Barrois (the area around Bar) for a period of five years; in 1422 it would be converted into a permanent order as the Order of Saint Hubert under the patronage of the Duke of Bar. The Catholic Encyclopedia s.n. Military Orders of St. Hubert, among other sources, give the name of this temporary organization as Order of Fidelity, but Boulton seems to think this not a contemporary form.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Alliance et Compagnie du Levrier 'Alliance and Company of the Hound'1410s-20sGermanBoulton
 

 
Hound (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1436, involving prominent men from Schwaben and Baden. It continued until shortly before 1500.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Im Laithbracken'of [in] the Scenthound'1436GermanRanft
der Geselschafft knecht vom Leythund'knight of the Society of the Scenthound'1482GermanKruse et al.
im Bracken'of [in] the Hound'15th c.GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Hound and Wreath (Germany) - This tournament society combines members of the order of the Hound (see above) and of the Wreath (which see). It participated in tournaments through the 1480s, according to Kruse et al.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Prackn und Crantz Geselschaft'Hounds and Wreaths Society'1479?GermanRanft
die loblich Geselschaft der Laitpracken und Kräntzlen'the honorable Society of the Scenthounds and Wreaths'1483GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Leopard (Germany) - This was a noble tournament society founded by the archbishop of Magdeburg (Albrecht IV) c. 1387, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschaft ... etliche tragen gulden, etliche silbern leoparden'Society ... some carry gold, others silver leopards'1387-1400GermanKruse et al.
Gesellen von dem Leeparde'Companions of the leopard'14th c.GermanBoulton
Gesellen mit den Lebarten'Companions with the leopards'14th c.GermanBoulton
 

 
Lion [1] (Germany) - This association was formed by the Counts of Nassau in 1379, together with the counts of Katzenelnbogen. It lasted for three years (by design) according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft mit dem Lewen'Society with the lion'1379GermanBoulton
geselschaft ... die nannten sich die grimmende lewen'society ... they called themselves the wrathful lions'1379-1398GermanKruse et al.
geselleschaft der panthier oder der lowen'society of the panthers or of the lions'1382-1415GermanKruse et al.
Lewen-Geselschaft'Lion-society'14th c.GermanBoulton
Gesellschaft der Leon'Society of the Lions'before 1500GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Lion [2] (Germany) - This society was organized by Wilhelm, marquis of Meissen, in or shortly after 1407, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
die lewner'the lion[ers]'c. 1407GermanKruse et al.
Geselleschaft ... unde das woren lauwen'Society ... and those were lions'15th c.GermanBoulton
 

 
Lion [3] (Germany) - This society was founded in 1489, according to Kruse et al. It served as a political and military alliance, rather than a tournament society. Many of its records are found in Munich, an important center for the organization.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft von dem Leon'Society of the Lion'1491GermanRanft
Gesellschaft des Löwen'Society of the Lion'16th c.GermanRanft
 

 
Lioness (Italy) - This fraternal organization was active from 1386-90, representing a faction in the fight between Louis d'Anjou and Queen Margherita for control of the kingdom of Naples during the minority of Ladislao, according to de Ceballos-Escalera. Boulton makes clear that another well known faction was eventually created as a formal order by Margherita, as the Order of the Spool (often translated as "reel"). In Italian, this is usually written as Leonza, rather than the more standard leonesa (Giannone).
 

 
Lizard (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1397. It continued into the middle of the fifteenth century.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft der Oydechzen'Society of the Lizards'1397GermanRanft
geselschaft der aedechzer'Society of the Lizard[ers]'1451GermanKruse et al.
egdesser die gesellschaft'lizard[ers], the Society'1452GermanKruse et al.
dy eudechser'the lizard[ers]'1452GermanKruse et al.
geselschaft der Eydossen'society [of] the Lizard[ers]'1453GermanKruse et al.
adexir'lizard'1453GermanKruse et al.
Eudöchszer'Lizard'c. 1453GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Lynx (Germany) - This society was established in 1410 by various nobles of northern Franconia, including the Prince-Abbot of Fulda and the count of Waldeck. It was intended to last for 10 years, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft von dem Losse'Society of the Lynx'15th c.GermanBoulton
 

 
Mallet (Germany) - This fraternal knightly organization was founded in 1395 or 1396.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft mit den Schlegeln'Society with the Mallets'1396GermanKruse et al.
Gesellschaft in Tütschen Landen, di sich nennent Slegeler'Society in German Lands, which calls itself Mallet[ers]'1396GermanKruse et al.
Die von Schlegeln'Those of the Mallets'c. 1400GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Marsh Hawk [literally "Martin's Bird"] (Germany) - This order was founded in 1367, formed by the Counts of Württemberg and the Counts of Eberstein. In 1395, the organization was reformulated and continued for a few years.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellescheft von den Martinsvogeln'Society of the Marsh Hawks'1367GermanRanft
 

 
Moon (Germany) - This fraternal organization had an altar for its use in the church of Friedberg. It is mentioned in various documents from 1371 to 1398.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Mane'Moon'1371GermanRanft
van dem manen'of the moon'1387GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Old Love (Germany) - This association was formed by the Counts of Nassau in 1375-8 according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellen von der alden Minne'Companions of the old Love'1375GermanRanft
Gesellen von der alden mynne'Companions of the old love'c. 1375GermanKruse et al.
Alte Minne'Old Love'14th c.GermanBoulton
 

 
Our Lady or Swan (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded by Friedrich II, Marquis of Brandenburg in 1440. It continues to be mentioned into the sixteenth century, according to Kruse et al.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
selschapp unnser liven frowen'Society of dear lady'1440GermanKruse et al.
Schwanenordens'Swan-order's'1440GermanRanft
societas in honorem beate Mariae virginis'society in honor of the blessed virgin Mary'15th c.GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Pale Horse (Germany) - This society was a noble society attached to the court of Gerhart von Jülich (though he did not found it), duke of Berg according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellen van den valen perden'Companions of the pale horses'14th c.GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Popinjay (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1414 by the counts of Bayern-München, Bayern-Landshut, and Pfalz-Amberg.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
die Sitichen'the Popinjays'c. 1414GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Prisoner's Iron (France) - This "order" was a fraternal group who vowed to carry out certain martial tasks. It was created by Jean Capet, duke of Bourbon, in 1415, and was intended to last for two years, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Fer de Prisonnier'Prisoner's Iron (Shackle)'c. 1415 FrenchBoulton
 

 
Ram (Germany) - This fraternal knightly organization was founded in 1386 under the auspices of count Heinrich zu Henneberg.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellin mit dem Widder'Companions with the Ram'1386GermanRanft
 

 
Red Sleeve (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1331, under the auspices of the Archbishops of Trier and Köln. It seems to have been shortlived.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Roden Ermeln'Red Sleeves'1331GermanKruse et al.
Gesellen, die die roden Arme han'Companions who have the red Arms'1331GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Rose (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in Bamberg in 1439. It is not well documented.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselleschafft der Rosen'Society of the Rose'c. 1439GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Saint Christopher [1] (Germany) - This fraternal noble organization was founded under the leadership of Wilhelm IV, Count of Henneburg-Schleusingen, in 1465, according to Boulton. In its statutes, it is simply described as the Bruderschafft und Gesellschafft 'Brotherhood and Society' and brüderlichen Gesellschaft 'brotherly/fraternal Society,' according to Kruse et al.
 

 
Saint Christopher [2] (Germany) - This fraternal noble organization was founded in 1517 under the leadership of Siegmund von Dietrichstein, according to Kruse et al. It was Catholic; the founder was a close associate of the Holy Roman Emperor and involved in the Counterreformation.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
S. Christoffs Gesellschaft'Saint Christopher's Sociey'1517?GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Saint George [1] (Germany) - This fraternal organization was found in 1375 as a political and military organization; it was intended to last for three years, according to Kruse et al.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschaf van synt Joeris'Society of saint George'1375GermanRanft
Selschaff van sent Joeris'Society of saint George'1377GermanRanft
gheselscap van sente Iorijs'society of saint George'1378GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Saint George [2] (Germany) - This fraternal knightly organization was founded in 1381, according to Kruse et al.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschaft mit sant Gyren'Society with saint George'1381GermanRanft
Jorgern'George[rs]'1381GermanKruse et al.
geselschaft sante Georgen'Society of saint George'1381GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Saint George of Rougemont (France) - This confraternal order was created in the Franche Comté of Burgundy around 1440, according to Boulton.
 

 
Saint Georges and Saint Williams Shields (Austria) - This company was founded by Duke Friderich of Austria in 1436. It was a reformulation of an earlier organization that had been the company of Saint Williamís Shield, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft mit sant Georgen und sant Wilhelms schild'Society with saint George's and saint William's shield'1436GermanBoulton
Geselschaft auf St. Wilhelms Schilt'Society on Saint William's Shield'15th c.GermanBoulton
Sand Jörgen und Sand Wilhelm'Saint George and Saint William'15th c.GermanBoulton
 

 
Saint Georges Shield (Germany) - This fraternal knightly organization was founded in 1406, in Schwaben. It continued to exist for a century.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ritterschaft sant Gergen Shiltz'Knightly-society of saint George's Shield'c. 1406GermanKruse et al.
mit dem Zaichen Sant Jörgen Kräuzes'with the Sign of Saint George's Cross'1408GermanKruse et al.
ritterschaft mit sant jörien schilte'knightly-society with saint george's shield'1442GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Saint Hubert (France) - This confraternal order was founded in 1422 in the Duchy of Bar, according to Boulton. It replaced the earlier Company of the Hound.
 

 
Saint Hubert (Germany) - This fraternal noble organization was founded under the leadership of Gerhard, Count of Sayn, in 1447, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
ritterbruderschafft sant Huperechtz'knightlybrotherhood of saint Hubert'1447GermanKruse et al.
Bruderschafft und ritterliche Geselschafft zu Lobe besonder sente Huprichcz'Brotherhood and knightly Society in special honor of saint Hubert'1447GermanRanft
 

 
Saint Sebastian (Germany) - This fraternal noble organization was founded sometime before 1483, probably by a count of Nassau, according to Boulton.
 

 
Saint Simplicius (Germany) - This society was founded in 1492 by the Prince-Abbot of Fulda, who was the brother of Count Wilhem of Henneburg-Schleusingen, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Des heilgen ritters sandt Simplicij gesellschaft'society of the holy knight saint Simplicius'c. 1492GermanBoulton
 

 
Saint William (Germany) - This association was established for two years (1380-2) by the counts of Helfenstein and Württemberg; its badge was an image of the saint bearing a lance with a banner of "Azure, a mullet Or" (the saint's arms) according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Die WilhelmerThe William[ers]1380GermanRanft
St. Wilhelmsgesellschaft 'St. William's-society'1380GermanRanft
Geselschafft mit sant Wilhalmen'Society with saint William'14th c.GermanBoulton
 

 
Saint Williams Shield (Austria) - This organization was founded in 1432 and was reorganized in 1436 into Saint Georges and Saint Williams Shield (which see).
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschaft auf St. Wilhelms Schilt'Society on Saint William's Shield'1433GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Salamander (Austria) - This society was probably founded around 1390 by Albrecht IV, duke of Austria, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschaft des Salamanders'Society of the Salamander'14th/15th c.GermanBoulton
Fürstlich geselschaft des Salamanders'Princely society of the Salamander'1454GermanBoulton
 

 
Sickle (Germany) - This society was founded by the bishop of Paderborn (Ruprecht von dem Berge) in 1391. It included several important nobles. A later company of the same name was founded c. 1400 in Anhalt-Zerbst-Dessau, east of the duchy of Brunswick, but we have no period forms of its name, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellen van den Sekelen'Companions of the Sickles'1391GermanRanft
Heren und Gesellen van den Sekelen'Lords and Companions of the Sickles'1392GermanBoulton
ghesellen mid der Zeekeln'companions with the Sickles'1398GermanKruse et al.
von der Zeekeln'of the Sickles'1398GermanKruse et al.
Ghesellen mid der Zeekel'Companions with the Sickle'1390sGermanRanft
 

 
Spear (Germany) - This organization is known only from a document making an alliance with the Brotherhood of the Wolf (which see). It was located in Schwaben, and was presumably the same sort of fraternal organization as the Brotherhood of the Wolf.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselleschefft mit den Spiesen'Society with the Spears'1366/7GermanRanft
 

 
Star (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1372; its members included prominent men from Hesse, Westfalia, Sachesen, Buchenau, etc., including several counts. Despite that, it seems to have been shortlived.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Die sich nennet die Sterner'that calls itself the Star[ers]'1372GermanRanft
Geselleschaff von den Sterren'Society of the Stars'1372GermanKruse et al.
Gesellschaft mit dem Sterne'Society with the Star'1373GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Star (Austria) - This fraternal knightly organization was founded in 1406 in Austria, with the permission of Albrecht IV.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft ... herren ritter und knecht ... die das hefftel mit stern tragend'Society ... [of] lords and knights ... those who carry a pin with a star'c. 1406GermanKruse et al.
ritterschaft des punt des sterns'knightly-society of the point of the star'1407GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Sword (Germany) - This organization is mentioned in 1370-1 and included elites from Schwaben.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschafft mit dem Swert'Society with the Sword'1370GermanRanft
 

 
Tiercelet (France) - This fraternal order of lesser nobility was founded by 1385, by a group of Gascon nobles, according to Vale. A printed notice of its statutes dated 1781 give it as "Statuts d'un ordre de chevalerie sous le nom de Tiercelet (ou de l'Epervier)." A tiercelet is a male falcon; epervier is a gloss added by the 18th c. editor.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Lenseigne dudit ordre est et sera un tercellet'the insignia of the said order is and will be a tiercelet'1377-1385OccitanVale
 

 
Tress (Austria) - This society was founded sometimes between 1365 and 1386 by Albrecht III, duke of Austria, and was at an end before 1400, according to Boulton. Kruse et al. date its founding to around 1395. The German is Zopfe (Middle High German) or Zopff (modern); the former is used as a byname for the duke: mit dem Zopfe and mitt dem Zopff are documentary forms from the duke's lifetime. A tress is a plait of hair; it is normally depicted as a braid that appears to have been cut from someone's head.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
eine Gesellschaft des Zopfs'a Society of the Tress'1395GermanSteeb
Geselschafft vom Zopf'Society of the Tress'14th c.GermanBoulton
Ain ritterliche geselscafft, daz war ain zopff'a knightly-society, there was a tress'c. 1400GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Unicorn [1] (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1398 by Friederich von Braunschweig and Balthasar von Thüringen, according to Kruse et al.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
unser gesellen von dem Einhorn'our companions of the Unicorn'1398GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Unicorn [2] (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1428 and reestablished in 1466 in Bavaria. Many important nobles were members.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschafft vom Aingehürn'Society of the Unicorn'1428GermanKruse et al.
societas eorum, qui deferent unicornem, et ob hoc volgus societatum illam pökchlär'their society, which bears a unicorn, and because of this the people called them pökchlär [probably derived from boch 'buck'/'ram']'1428Latin (German)Kruse et al.
geselschaft vom ayngehürn'society of the unicorn'1431GermanKruse et al.
Gesellschafft vom Ayngehürn'Society of the Unicorn'1466GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Unicorn [3] (Germany) - Not much is known of the structure or origin of this tournament society, which first appears in 1479 and appears in rolls of arms and tournament books.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Eynhorner'Unicorn[ers]'c. 1479GermanRanft
Geselschaft des Einhorns'Society of the Unicorn'c. 1500GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Unicorn and Maiden (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded in 1424 by the count of Leuchtenberg and count of Hals, among others.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselchafft des Aingehörns undt der Junkhfrauen'Society of the Unicorn and the Maiden'1424GermanRanft
 

 
Wheel (Germany) - This society is attested in 1342-3, and has an altar in Cleves dedicated to Saint George. It was not founded by a prince, but was a fraternal group according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselscap van de Rade'Society of the Wheel'1342GermanKruse et al.
Ghesellen van den Raeed'Companions of the Wheels'1343GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Wolf [1] (Germany) - This fraternal knightly organization was founded in 1366 or 1367 in Schwaben; it seems to have been intended to last for two years.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschaft mit den Wolffen'Society with the Wolves'1366/7GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Wolf [2] (Germany) - This fraternal organization was founded around 1459 as a tournament society in the central Rhine area; it was active until after 1500.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
die loblich geselschaft des wolfs'the honorable society of the wolf'1483GermanKruse et al.
der gesellschafft im Wolff vom Rein'the society of [in] the Wolf of the Rhein'1487GermanKruse et al.
Gesellschafft im Wolff'Society of [in] the Wolf'1566GermanRanft
 

 
Wreath (Germany) - This fraternal tournament society was founded around 1479; it is documented in several rolls of arms in the period leading up to and just after 1500.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselschaft im Kranntz'Society of [in] the Wreath'1479GermanRanft
 

Loblich (or löblich) has several possible translations. The normal modern translation is 'praiseworthy, laudable, commendable' (from lob 'praise, honor', which appears here as lobe); as an archaic form of address it's also 'estimable, honourable, worthy.' (from Cassell's German).


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