Medieval Secular Order Names: Courtly Orders and Awards

by Juliana de Luna (Julia Smith), Siren Herald

© 2008-2009 by Julia Smith. All rights reserved.
Version 1.3, updated 04 May 2009


 
Band, Bend, or Sash (Spain) - This order was founded in 1330 by Alfonso XI of Castilla and Leon, according to Boulton. It slowly fell into disuse over time, as more kingdoms were united under one sovereign; it was effectively out of use by the latter part of the fifteenth century. Its badge was a heraldic bend or else a sash worn over clothing.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
La orden de la Banda (or Vanda)'order of the band'1330SpanishBoulton
Los cavalleros de la Vanda'the knights of the Band'1503SpanishDomínguez Casas
La Banda de Kastilla'the band of Castilla'1457GermanBoulton
Milites Fasciae sive Della Banda'Knights of the Band or of the Band'1604Latin (English)Ursula
 

 
Belt (France) - This "pseudo-order" is found in images c. 1400, according to Boulton.
 

 
Black Swan (Italy) - This order was founded in 1350 by the count of Savoy, Amé VI. It was a more or less fraternal group, and was shortly replaced by the Order of the Collar, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Companie du Cigne Noir'Company of the Black Swan'1350FrenchCox
lordre de la Compaignie du Cine'the order of the Company of the Swan'1350FrenchCox
 

 
Broom-Pod (France) - This "pseudo-order" (award rather than corporate group) was founded in France around 1388, by Charles VI, according to Boulton. A broom-pod is the seed of the broom plant (the Latin planta genista gave the Plantagenet dynasty its name). Various forms of it were used as badges by prominent nobles and members of the royal family in France and England.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Colers de son liveree de broincoddes'Collars of his livery of broom-pods'c. 1396FrenchBoulton
Nostre Ordre de la Coste de Genestre'Our Order of the Pod of the Broom-plant'1406FrenchBoulton
 

 
Buckle (Germany) - This order was founded 1355 by the Emperor Karl IV von Luxemburg, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
... und das ein Geselschafft sein soll an uns zu tragen ein Furgespan stettigs'a Society ... of the Buckle ...'1392GermanRanft
Gesellscafft des Furspanns'Society of the Buckle'c. 1392GermanRanft
Gesellen des Furspans'Companions of the Buckle'c. 1400GermanRanft
Geselschafft mit dem Furspann'Society with the Buckle'1411GermanRanft
Die Geselschaft des Furespanns angenomen'The Society which takes the Buckle'1476?GermanRanft
Die Geselschaft mit dem Furspang'The Society with the Buckle'15th c.GermanRanft
Die Geselschafft der Furspangen'The Society of the Buckles'1511GermanRanft
Der Furspanger'The One who wears a buckle'1511?GermanRanft
Bruderschafft der Fürspangenn'Brotherhood of those who wear the buckle'1524?GermanRanft
 

 
Camail and Porcupine [or Camail or Porcupine] (France) - This award/order was founded by the Duke of Orleans (brother of the king) in or around 1394 according to Boulton. A camail is the mail hood which hangs down from a helmet (like a basinet).
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
son order du Porc espic'his order of the Porcupine'1570Frenchdu Tillet
 

 
Chestnut Leaf or Beech Leaf (Navarre) - This "pseudo-order" (award rather than corporate group) was founded in Navarre by 1393 according to Boulton. Domínguez Casas describes it as "Hoja de Castaña."
 

 
Collar or Annunciation (Italy) - This order was founded by the count of Savoy, Amé VI (also known as Amédée and Amadeo), around 1364.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ordre du Collier de Savoye'order of the Collar of Savoy'15th c.FrenchBoulton
Ordre de l'Annunciation Notre Dame'order of the Annunciation [of] Our Lady'1518FrenchBoulton
L'Ordre du Collier de Savoie dict de l'Annonciade'the Order of the Collar of Savoy, also called the Annunciation'1654FrenchBoulton
L'Ordre de Savoie dit de l'Annonciade'The Order of Savoy also called the Annuncication'1657FrenchBoulton
Ordinis Colaris (genitive) [Ordo Colaris]'order of the Collar'1366Latin (French or Italian)Boulton
Milites Annunciationis'Knights of the Annunciation'1604Latin (English)Ursula
 

 
Convent of Our Lady at the Sand (Germany) - This order was founded by Adolf von Egmont, Duke of Gelders, in the second half of the 1460s. It probably did not last past 1471, according to Boulton. Kruse et al. are comfortable with a date of 1468.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ritterbruder[schaft] des Conventes unseres lieben Frau Ingensande'Knightly Brotherhood of the Convent of Our Lady at the Sand'1460sGermanBoulton
 

 
Cord [or Cord Belt] (France) - This order was founded in Brittany in the 1470s to replace the Order of the Ermine and the Order of the Ear of Wheat Ear, according to Jones Signes.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Une chesne d'or a cordeliere'a gold chain of a cord'1490FrenchJones Signes
 

 
Crescent (France) - This confraternal order was founded in 1448 by Rene I, Duke of Anjou and nominal king of mainland Sicily (Naples), according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ordre du Croissant'Order of the Crescent'15th c.FrenchBoulton
 

 
Crown (France) - This order was founded in 1379 by Enguerrand, lord of Coucy, a vassal of the king of France. This is the only order founded by a count in France, though this creation might be related to his claim to a duchy in the Holy Roman Empire, according to Boulton. Boulton says that this order was probably dissolved by his death in 1397.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ordre de la Couronne'Order of the Crown'1390FrenchBoulton
 

 
Double Crown (Spain) - This devisa was given as an award by Joan I of Aragon starting in 1392, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Corona Doble'Double Crown'1392Catalan?Boulton
 

 
Dragon (Hungary) - This order was founded by Sigismund von Luxemburg in 1408. It came to an end by c. 1500. It was not known as the Dragon Overthrown in period.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Societatis nostrae Draconicae (genitive) [Societas nostra Draconica]'our dragonly society'1413Latin (German or Hungarian)Boulton
Draconis Torquae (genitive) [Draconis Torqua]'collar of the dragon'15th c.Latin (German or Hungarian)Von Hye
Divisa seu Societate Draconia (ablative) [Divisa seu Societas Draconia]'Device or Society of the Dragon'15th c.Latin (German or Hungarian)Boulton
Societate Draconia seu Draconistarum (ablative) [Societas Draconia seu Draconistarum]'Draconic Society or of the Dragonly ones' 15th c.Latin (German or Hungarian)Boulton
Fraternitas Draconum'Brotherhood of the Dragons' 15th c.Latin (German or Hungarian)Boulton
Gesellschaft mit dem Trakchen'Society with the Dragon'1409GermanBoulton
Devisas ... la del Dragon'devices ... the one of the Dragon'1438-9SpanishBoulton
 

 
Eagle (Austria) - This order was founded by duke Albrecht V of Austria in 1433.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Adler'Eagle'1433GermanRanft
[Adlergesellschaft]'eagle society'15th c.GermanBoulton
Collar de las disciplinas con la aguila blanca'collar of the disciples with the white eagle'1430sSpanishBoulton
Devisas ... com la del Aquila'devisas, like the one of the eagle'1438SpanishBoulton
devisam draconiam et eciam Aquile (accusative) [devisa draconia et [etiam] Aquile]'device of the dragon and also the Eagle'1438Latin (German)Kruse et al.
 

 
Ear of Wheat (France) - This order was used from 1447-88 by Francois I of Brittany to replace the earlier Order of the Ermine, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Collier a l'Espy'collar of the ear of wheat'1447FrenchJones Signes
Collier de l'Epi (may be modernized)'collar of the ear of wheat'15th c.FrenchBoulton
 

 
Ermine (France) - This order was founded by Jean IV, duke of Brittany in 1381. While wheat-ears (epi) are used in the collar of the order, and gave their name to a herald, the name is associated with a later order which replaced this one, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Le collier et l'emblème de l'herimine'the collar and the emblem of the ermine'1433FrenchJones Signes
Un Ordre de son collier'an order of his collar'1437FrenchJones Signes
Un collier de l'ordre A ma vie'a collar of the order "A ma vie"' (motto of the Order)1470FrenchJones Signes
 

 
Ermine (Italy) - This order, which bore the same name as the more famous order of Brittany, was founded around 1465 by Ferrante, king of Naples, according to Boulton. It seems to have fallen into disuse by c. 1500, according to Boulton (either with the death of its founder, or the fall of Naples to Aragon). The patron of the order was the archangel Michael.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Enpresa de lo Armellino'The impresa of the ermine'1474ItalianBoulton
La impresa del signor Re l'Armellino'the impresa of the lord King, the Ermine'1487ItalianBoulton
Ordine del Arminio'Order of the Ermine'15th c.ItalianBoulton
 

 
Garter or Saint George (England) - This order was founded by Edward III of England, sometime in the 1340s, according to Boulton. It continues in use to the present day. It was also known as the Order of Saint George or by some combination of the two. Its badge was a blue garter.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Milites de Societate Garterii'knights of the society of the garter'1348Latin (English)Boulton
Ordinis Garterii (genitive) [Ordo Garterii]'order of the garter'15th c. copy from 1348Latin (English)Boulton
Ordo Sancti Georgii sive Societas Garterii'Order of Saint George or the Society of the Garter'15th c. copy from 1348Latin (English)Boulton
Societate ... de Garteris (ablative) [Societas ... de Garteris]'society of the garters'1349Latin (English)Boulton
Milites Periscelidis'Knights of the Garter'1604Latin (English)Ursula
Garteriorum Ordo'Order of the Garters'1582Latin (Danish)Gairdner and Brodie
Comitivam sancti Georgii de la gartiere (accusative) [Comitiva sancti Georgii de la gartiere]'company of Saint George of the Garter'1360Latin and Anglo-FrenchBoulton
un des Chivalers de la Garter'one of the Knights of the Garter'1376Anglo-FrenchAND
Compaigniouns de la Garder'Companions of the Garter' 1376Anglo-FrenchAND
Compaignons de la Gartiere'Companions of the Garter'c. 1376Anglo-FrenchAND
La tres noble Compaignie et Ordre du Jartier'the very noble Company and Order of the Garter'1377Anglo-FrenchBoulton
Chivalers du Jarter'Knights of the Garter'14th-15th c.Anglo-FrenchAND
la Compaignie de la Gartier'the Company of the Garter'14th-15th c.Anglo-FrenchAND
Compaigne del Gartier'Company of the Garter'14th-15th c.Anglo-FrenchAND
Ordre del Jartier'Order of the Garter'14th-15th c.Anglo-FrenchAND
lordes of the garter1422EnglishMED s.n. garter
the honurable Ordre of the Gartier1429EnglishMED s.n. ordre
ordre ... of þe garterec. 1435EnglishMED s.n. garter
The Felship of the Garter'the fellowship of the Garter'1450EnglishMED s.n. felauship(e)
knites of the garterea. 1464EnglishMED s.n. garter
a felow of the Garterc. 1475EnglishMED s.n. felau(e)
knightys of the order and felouship of saint Georgec. 1475EnglishMED s.n. felauship(e)
Order of the Garter1533EnglishGairdner and Brodie
ordre of the Garter1548EnglishOED s.n. garter
the noble ordre of the gartier1548EnglishOED s.n. collar
The societe of saynct George vulgarely called the order of the gartera. 1548EnglishOED s.n. society
Knight of the Noble Order of S. George1591EnglishOED s.n. Fleece
la orden de la jaretera'the order of the garter'1534SpanishGairdner and Brodie
Chevaliers de St George de la Compagnie du Gartier'knights of Saint George of the Company of the Garter'15th c. copy from 1348FrenchBoulton
l'ordre du Bleu-Gertier'order of the Blue Garter'c. 1400FrenchFroissart
l'ordre des chevaliers du Bleu-Gartier'order of the knights of the blue Garter'c. 1400FrenchFroissart
l'ordre de la Jarretiere'order of the Garter'c. 1400FrenchFroissart
Chevalier de la Garetiere de l'ordre du noble et puissant Roy d'Engleterre'Knight of the Garter of the order of the noble and powerful King of England'1513FrenchGairdner and Brodie
l'ordre du Roy d'Angleterre'the order of the king of England'1533FrenchGairdner and Brodie
l'Ordre du Roy'the Order of the King'1544FrenchGairdner and Brodie
 

 
Gold(en) Fleece (France) - This order was founded in 1430 by Philip III of Burgundy. The Burgundian title would become a Hapsburg possession in 1477, and would become the preeminent order of the Hapsburg domains (Holy Roman Empire, Spain, etc.).
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Un ordre que est appellé 'la Thoison d'or''An order whch is called "the Gold(en) Fleece"'1429FrenchLe Fèvre
Ordre de la Thoison d'Or'order of the Gold(en) Fleece'1430FrenchBoulton
L'Ordre de la Thoison d'or'the order of the Gold(en) Fleece'1431FrenchLe Fèvre
La noble ordre et confrairie de la Thoison d'or'the noble order and fraternity of the Gold(en) Fleece'1431FrenchLe Fèvre
La noble compaignie de la Thoison d'or'the noble company of the Gold(en) Fleece'1434FrenchLe Fèvre
Ordre du Thoison d'Or'Order of the Gold(en) Fleece'1543FrenchGairdner and Brodie
Chevalliers de l'Ordre de la Thoison d'Or'Knights of the Order of the Gold(en) Fleece'1546FrenchGairdner and Brodie
ordoure of the Empriour with the goldin fleis (this refers to the insignia, not the order itself)1539EnglishOED s.n. fleece
the golden Flees (this refers to the insignia, not the order itself)1548EnglishOED s.n. fleece
Knight of ... the Golden Fleece1591EnglishOED s.n. fleece
Ordinis Aurei Velleris (genitive) [Ordo Aurei Velleris]'Order of the Gold(en) Fleece'1519Latin (Catalan)Domínguez Casas
Milites Aurei Velleris'Knights of the Gold(en) Fleece'1604Latin (English)Ursula
del Tosone'of the Fleece'1593ItalianMedici
 

 
Gold(en) Shield (France) - This order was founded by Duke Louis III of Bourbon in 1367. It seems to have been replaced by the late 1370s by a new order, the Order of Hope (Esperance), according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ordre de l'Escu d'Or'Order of the Gold(en) Shield'1367FrenchBoulton
 

 
Gold(en) Spur (Italy) - This papal order was founded in 1539, according to de Ceballos-Escalera y Gila. At its founding a more ancient origin was asserted but cannot be confirmed. It is also known as the Gold(en) Militia, though it's not clear if it was so known before 1600.
 

 
Grail-Templars of Saint George (Austria) - This order was founded around 1337 by Otto von Hapsburg, who was at the time Duke of Austria according to Boulton. The term "templois" or "templais" seems to have been based on the usage in Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival for the protectors of the Holy Grail, rather than the Templar order (Barber).
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Geselleschaft der Tempellaist'society of the Grail-Templars'1337GermanKruse et al.
geselleschaft der Tempellaise'society of the Grail-Templars'1341GermanKruse et al.
Capelle sancti Georgi seu societas Templois'chapel of Saint George or society of the Grail-Templars'c. 1337Latin (German)Boulton
Societas capelle dominorum Templois'society of chapel of the lords of the Grail-Templars'14th c.Latin (German)Boulton
Societas capelle sancti Georgii Templois'society of the chapel of Saint George of the Grail-Templars'14th c.Latin (German)Boulton
 

 
Holy Spirit (Spain) - Also known as the Order of the Dove, this order was founded by Juan I, c. 1390. It never functioned as a true order, but rather as an award or collar, according to Boulton. Its badge was a dove descending.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
[There was on the said collar] una paloma blanca'a white dove'c. 1390SpanishBoulton
 

 
Holy Spirit (France) - This order was founded in 1578; it is explicitly not a chivalric order in Boulton's terms, according to Boulton. After 1650, it begins to also be known as le cordon bleu, from which all uses of that term rise.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Milites Sancti Spiritus'Knights of the Holy Spirit'1604Latin (English)Ursula
 

 
Hope (France) - This order seems to have replaced the Order of the Gold(en) Shield by the late 1370s in the duchy of Bourbon, according to Boulton. Some Victorian sources give the name of this order as the Thistle (a Bourbon badge) or the Order of Bourbon, but there is no evidence of either usage.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Son ordre d'Esperance'his order of hope'1379FrenchBoulton
 

 
Jar (Spain) - This order was founded by Fernando, then heir to the throne of Aragon in 1403. It would fall out of use with the unification of Spain under the Hapsburgs. The badge was a griffin hanging from a collar which included one or more jars. Later a stole worn across the body was added. Both these elements were sometimes used in the order name.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
stolae seu amprisiae charissimi fratris nostri Regis Aragoniae (genitive) [stola seu amprisia charissimi fratris nostri Regis Aragoniae]'the stole or dearest emprise of our brother the king of Aragon'1413Latin (German or Hungarian)Boulton
La Stola et Jarra'the stole and jar'1446Latin (Spanish)Boulton
Stola Aragoniae Regis'the stole of the king of Aragon'15th c.Latin (German)Von Hye
Su Orden de Cavalleria de la Jarra, y Lirios, y un Grifo'his order of knighthood of the Jar, and Lilies, and a Griffin'Early 17th c.SpanishDomínguez Casas
Su devisa del collar de las Jarras y Gryfo'his devisa of the collar of the Jars and Griffin'Early 17th c.SpanishDomínguez Casas
 

 
Knot or Holy Spirit of Right Desire (Italy) - This order was founded in 1352 by Loysi di Taranto, king of mainland Sicily (or, as it was often known, the kingdom of Naples), according to Boulton. It did not last after his death.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Societate nodi illustrus Ludovici Regis Sicili (ablative) [Societas nodi illustrus Ludovici Regis Sicili]'Society of the Knot of our illustrious Ludovicus (Loysi), king of Sicily'1360sLatin (Italian)Boulton
Societate Nodi (ablative) [Societas Nodi]'Society of the Knot'14th c.Latin (Italian)Boulton
Chevaliers de la Compagnie du Saint Esperit au Droit Desir'Knights of the Company of the Holy Spirit of Right Desire'14th c.FrenchBoulton
Cavalieri del santo spedito'knights of the Holy Spirit'14th c.Italian (Tuscan)Boulton
Quella del Nodo'that [order] of the knot'1539ItalianBoulton
 

 
Loreto (Italy) - This order (Cavelieri Lauretani) was established by Pope Paul III in 1545, according to Guidi Bruscoli. Loreto is the name of a town; the location of an important shrine to the Virgin Mary.
 

 
Lily (Italy) - This order was founded in 1546 by Pope Paul III, according to Stinger; they were referred to as Cavalieri di Giglio 'knights of the Lily.' The reference is to the fleurs-de-lys in the Farnese arms (Paul was a member of the Farnese family). Guidi Bruscoli suggests it was sometimes known as the Red Lily or Fleur-de-lys.
 

 
Our Lady of Gelders (Netherlands) - This order was founded in 1468 in Gelders, according to Boulton.
 

 
Pomegranate (Spain) - This award was given to Jorg von Ehingen at the same time as the Band and the Scale in 1457; it seems to be essentially just the badge of Enrique IV, according to Boulton. It appears in a contemporary royal grant regarding the same event as "la nuestra devisa" (again, according to Boulton).
 

 
Saint Anthony [1] (Germany) - This order was founded in 1384 by Albrecht I, Duke of Bavaria, according to Boulton.
 

 
Saint Anthony [2] (Germany) - This order was founded between 1420 and 1435 (more likely the latter than the former) by the duke of Cleves (they were counts until 1417). It continued until 1483, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Confraternitas'brotherhood'15th c.Latin (German)Boulton
Oirden van sent Anthonius'order of Saint Anthony'1451GermanKruse et al.
St. Anthony orden ducis Adolphi'Saint Anthony order of duke Adolph'1451GermanKruse et al.
Bruederschap Sent Anthony'brotherhood of Saint Anthony'15th c.GermanBoulton
 

 
Saint Catherine (France) - This order was founded, perhaps in the 1330s, in the Dauphiné de Viennois, by Humbert, according to Boulton.
 

 
Saint George [1] (Germany) - This order was founded by the Holy Roman Emperor Friderich III and proclaimed by the pope in 1469. It ceased to exist in 1541, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ordo militaris sancti Georgii'Military order of Saint George'1469Latin (German)Boulton
Sannd Jorgen orden'saint George's order'c. 1469GermanBoulton
Der Ritterlich Orden Sant Georgen'the Knightly Order of Saint George'1555GermanKruse et al.
 

 
Saint George [2] (Germany) - This order was founded by the Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III in 1468, according to Boulton. It was reorganized by his son, Maximilian, in 1503 in a broader form. The 1492 citation may be from yet another order of Saint George.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ritterorden St. Jörgens'Knightly Order of Saint George'15th c.GermanBoulton
Teurlich löblich Sanct Georgen Gesellschaft'dear honorable Society of Saint George'c. 1503GermanBoulton
Fraternitas equestris S. Georgii'Knightly Order of Saint George'c. 1492Latin (German)Kruse et al.
Confraternitas ... sancti Georgii'fraternity of Saint George'c. 1493Latin (German)Kruse et al.
milites coronati'knights of the Crown'1494Latin (German)Kruse et al.
Insignis et laudabilis confraternitas sancti Georgii'noteworthy and praiseworthy fraternity of Saint George'c. 1503Latin (German)Boulton
 

 
Saint George (Hungary) - This order was founded in 1325/6 by Karoly I, king of Hungary, according to Boulton. Karoly was a descendant of the Angevins, born in Naples. It seems likely to have been dissolved before 1400.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Universitas societatis fraternalis militiae titulo Sancti Georgii insigniti'community of the fraternal society of knighthood named for the notable Saint George'1326Latin (Hungarian)Boulton
Societatem beati Georgii (accusative) [Societas beati Georgii]'society of the Blessed George'1326Latin (Hungarian)Boulton
Societate beati Georgii martyris (ablative) [Societas beati Georgii martyris]'society of the blessed George martyr' 1326Latin (Hungarian)Boulton
 

 
Saint George (Spain) - The empresa de sant Jordi (Enterprise of Saint George) was founded in the 1370s by king Pere the Ceremonious, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Cavallers del orde nostre de Sant Jordi'Knights of our order of Saint George'1379CatalanBoulton
Los cavallers de sant Jordi'knights of Saint George'1379CatalanBoulton
 

 
Saint George with the Pelican (Germany) - This order was founded by Ludwig IV von Wittelsbach, duke of Upper Bavaria and Elector-Count Palatine of Franconia or the Rhine, in 1444. It did not last long, ending by c. 1449, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ordo de Pellicano'Order of the Pelican'1444Latin (German)Boulton
Gesellschaft mit dem Pelikan'Society with the Pelican'1444GermanBoulton
Gesellschaft St. Georges mit dem Pelikan'Society of Saint George with the Pelican'1444GermanBoulton
Gesellschaft St. Jörgens mit dem Pelikan'Society of Saint George with the Pelican'1444GermanBoulton
St Pelikan'Holy Pelican'1444GermanRanft
 

 
Saint George (Italy) - This order was founded by Pope Paul III in 1545, according to Guidi Bruscoli.
 

 
Saint Hubert [or Horn] (Germany) - This order was founded in 1444 by Gerhard V, duke of Jülich and Berg and Count of Ravensberg, according to Boulton. It continued until around 1511, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Equitum S. Huberti ordo'Order of the knights of Saint Hubert'1444Latin (German)Kruse et al.
St. Hubertus-Orden'St Hubert Order'15th c.Latin (German)Boulton
Sent Hubertz orden'Saint Hubert's order'c. 1444GermanBoulton
Sent Huprechtz Broderschaft'Saint Hubert's Brotherhood'c. 1444GermanBoulton
Ritterbruderschaft von Horn'Knightly Brotherhood of the Horn'c. 1444GermanBoulton
 

 
Saint Jerome (Germany) - This order was founded in 1450 by Friderich II, Elector-Duke of Saxony, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft Sente Jeronimi'Society of Saint Jerome'c. 1450GermanBoulton
 

 
Saint Martin (Germany) - This society was founded by Bertold, the Elector-Archbishop of Mainz, in 1496, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Fraternitas S. Martini'Brotherhood of Saint Martin'c. 1496-7LatinBoulton
St. Martins Bruderschafft'Brotherhood of Saint Martin'c. 1496-7GermanBoulton
gesellschaft St. Martins'Society of Saint Martin'1497GermanBoulton
 

 
Saint Michael Archangel (France) - This order was founded by Louis XI of France in 1469, according to Boulton. It continued in use in some form until the French Revolution.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ordre Monsieur Saint Michel Archange'order of my lord Saint Michael archangel'15th c.FrenchBoulton
the order of saynt Michaell1530EnglishOED s.n. knight
the Order of France1540EnglishGairdner and Brodie
the order of St. Michael1536EnglishGairdner and Brodie
Knight of ... Worthy S. Michael1591EnglishOED s.n. Fleece
Milites D: Michaelis'Knights of St. Michael'1604Latin (English)Ursula
 

 
Saint Paul (Italy) - This order was founded in 1540 by Pope Paul III; they were referred to as the Cavalieri di S. Paolo, according to Stinger. These knighthoods were purely honorary.
 

 
Saint Peter (Italy) - This order was founded in 1520 by Pope Leo X, according to Partner. These knighthoods were purely honorary.
 

 
Saint Stephen (Italy) - This order was founded by Cosimo de'Medici in 1561, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Cavalieri di Santo Stefano'knights of Saint Stephen'1562ItalianMedici
dell'habito di Santo Stefano'of the habit of Saint Stephen'1562ItalianMedici
Collegio de' Cavalieri'College of Knights'1562ItalianMedici
nostra Religione di Santo Stefano Papa'our religious-order of Saint Stephen, pope'1563ItalianMedici
I Cavalieri dell'Ordine di Santo Stefano'the knights of the Order of Saint Stephen'1565ItalianMedici
Religione di santo Stefano'Religious-order of Saint Stephen'1567ItalianMedici
Caval.re ... della religione di San Steffano'Knight of the religious-order of Saint Stephen'1575ItalianMedici
Religione di Santo Stefano'religious-order of Saint Stephen'1593ItalianMedici
Milites D: Stephani'Knights of St. Stephen'1604Latin (English)Ursula
De Santo Estevan'[Order] of Saint Stephen'1620SpanishMedici
 

 
Scale (Spain) - It fell out of use under the Catholic kings (1470s). Its badge was a circle of overlapping rows of scale (as in scale mail), according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Devisa del collar del escama'device of the collar of the scale'c. 1437SpanishBoulton
El colar del escama'the collar of the scale'1457SpanishBoulton
 

 
Ship (Italy) - This order was founded by King Carlo III in 1381 to replace the defunct Order of the Knot, according to Boulton. By 1642, it was also referred to as the Order of the Argonauts of Saint Nicholas, but does not seem to have been known that way during its existence, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ordre de la Nef'Order of the ship'1381FrenchBoulton
Compagnia chiamandola della nave'Company called of the ship'1539ItalianBoulton
 

 
Sign (Spain) - This devisa was given as an award by Joan I of Aragon in the late 14th century (probably starting in 1387), according to Boulton (on the basis of an article by Theophilus Britten). It was abandoned in 1392.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
[devisa del] senyal'sign'1392Catalan?Boulton
Cinyel'sign'1392Catalan?Boulton
 

 
Spool (Italy) - This order was founded in 1388 by Margherita, regent of Naples, according to Boulton. This order is often translated as "reel."
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
La compagnia dell'Argata'the company of the spool'1624ItalianBoulton
 

 
Star (Germany) - This order was founded by Otto II, "co-Duke" of Brunswick according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Gesellschaft von den Sterren'Society of the Stars'14th c.GermanBoulton
[Gesellschaft] mit dem Sterne'[Society] with the Star'14th c.GermanBoulton
 

 
Star or Lady of the Noble House (France) - This order was planned from 1344 and came to fruition in 1352. It was founded by Jean II of France, though planned while he was Duke of Normandy and heir, according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Compagnie de le Estoille'Company of the Star'1361FrenchBoulton
Les chevaliers de l'Etoile'knights of the star'1373FrenchBoulton
Les Chevaliers de Nostre Dame de la Noble Maison'Knights of Our Lady of the Noble House'1351FrenchBoulton
Consortium seu societatem militem Beate Marie Nobilis Domus apud Sanctum Odoenum prope Sanctum Dyonisium in Francia (accusative) [Consortium seu societas milita Beate Marie Nobilis Domus apud Sanctum Odoenum prope Sanctum Dyonisium in Francia]'the company or knightly society of the Blessed Mary of the Noble House at Saint Ouen near Saint Denis in France'1351Latin (French)Boulton
Inclite Stellifere Congregationis nostre militaris apud Sanctum Audoenum in Domo Nobili (ablative) [Inclita Stellifera Congregatio nostra militaris apud Sanctum Audoenum in Domo Nobili]'Our Illustrious Starbearing Knightly Congregation in the Noble House at Saint Ouen'1356Latin (French)Boulton
Societate Stelle (ablative) [Societas Stelle]'Society of the Star'1358Latin (French)Boulton
Milites Stellae'Knights of the Star'1604Latin (English)Ursula
 

 
Sword (Cyprus) - This order was founded in the late 1340s or 1350s by Pierre de Poitiers-Antioch, of the Lusignan dynasty. In more recent times, this is also called the order of silence, but there's no evidence that it was so known in period, according to Boulton. The 19th century Portuguese Order of the Sword claims to have medieval routes, but there is not evidence for this according to Boulton.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Son gracieux order de l'espee'his gracious order of the sword'ante 1400FrenchBoulton
La sua divisa della spada'his device of the sword'1413ItalianBoulton
Societatem Regum Cypri (accusative) [Societas Regum Cypri]'Society of the Kings of Cyprus'1480Latin (French)?Boulton
 

 
Thistle [or Saint Andrew] (Scotland) - This order was founded around 1470 by James III of Scotland, according to Boulton. The order collar includes sprigs of rue, but it has never been known by a name like Rue.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
ordour of the thrissella. 1623EnglishOED s.n. order
 

 
Towel (Germany) - This society was founded by Duke Albrecht of Austria, though this order seems to have been associated with his Bohemian holdings. We only know of it from 1438, and it seems to have been short-lived.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Devisas ... como el Tusenique, que quiere dezir tovaja'devisas, like the Tusenique, which is to say towel'Between 1365 and 1438SpanishBoulton
Tusiniqueuntranslatable1430s-1440sSpanishBoulton
 

 
True Cross (France) - This order was founded between 1365 and 1375 by Lois I of Anjou; it seems to have ceased at his death in 1384.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ordre de la Vraie Croix'Order of the True Cross'Between 1365 and 1384FrenchBoulton
 

 
Unicorn (Scotland) - This "order" only appears once, and is probably a simple award of the right to display a royal badge.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
Ordre de la Licorne'order of the unicorn'15th c.FrenchBoulton
 

 
Virgin Mary [or Elephant] (Denmark) - This order was founded by Christian I, king of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, probably around 1457. While its official name was not the elephant in our period, the elephant badge was used for it no later than 1508 (probably from the start, but Boulton cannot prove it). The name Elephant would not be used until its revival in 1693.
 
DATED FORM:TRANSLATION:DATE:LANGUAGE:SOURCE:
[?]'confraternity of the Virgin Mary'1474LatinBoulton
 

 
White Greyhound (Navarre) - This Navarese order was created as the "lebrel blanco" according to Domínguez Casas by Carlos II of Navarre (died 1387). This seems likely to be a period form.
 

Loblich (or löblich) has several possible translations. The normal modern translation is 'praiseworthy, laudable, commendable' (from lob 'praise, honor', which appears here as lobe); as an archaic form of address it's also 'estimable, honourable, worthy.' (from Cassell's German).


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Medieval Scotland | Medieval Names Archive | Medieval Secular Order Names


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